Sources of Vitamin A
Concentrations of preformed vitamin A are highest in liver and fish oils. Other sources of preformed vitamin A are milk and eggs, which also include some provitamin A. Most dietary provitamin A comes from leafy green vegetables, orange and yellow vegetables, tomato products, fruits, and some vegetable oils The top food sources of vitamin A in the U.S. diet include dairy products, liver, fish, and fortified cereals; the top sources of provitamin A include carrots, broccoli, cantaloupe, and squash.
Table 2 suggests many dietary sources of vitamin A. The foods from animal sources in Table 2 contain primarily preformed vitamin A, the plant-based foods have provitamin A, and the foods with a mixture of ingredients from animals and plants contain both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A.
RAE per serving
|Beef liver, pan fried, 3 ounces||6,582||731|
|Sweet potato, baked in skin, 1 whole||1,403||156|
|Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup||573||64|
|Pumpkin pie, commercially prepared, 1 piece||488||54|
|Carrots, raw, ½ cup||459||51|
|Ice cream, French vanilla, soft serve, 1 cup||278||31|
|Cheese, ricotta, part skim, 1 cup||263||29|
|Herring, Atlantic, pickled, 3 ounces||219||24|
|Milk, fat free or skim, with added vitamin A and vitamin D, 1 cup||149||17|
|Cantaloupe, raw, ½ cup||135||15|
|Peppers, sweet, red, raw, ½ cup||117||13|
|Mangos, raw, 1 whole||112||12|
|Breakfast cereals, fortified with 10% of the DV for vitamin A, 1 serving||90||10|
|Egg, hard boiled, 1 large||75||8|
|Black-eyed peas (cowpeas), boiled, 1 cup||66||7|
|Apricots, dried, sulfured, 10 halves||63||7|
|Broccoli, boiled, ½ cup||60||7|
|Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 ounces||59||7|
|Tomato juice, canned, ¾ cup||42||5|
|Yogurt, plain, low fat, 1 cup||32||4|
|Tuna, light, canned in oil, drained solids, 3 ounces||20||2|
|Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, 1 cup||13||1|
|Summer squash, all varieties, boiled, ½ cup||10||1|
|Chicken, breast meat and skin, roasted, ½ breast||5||1|
|Pistachio nuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce||4||0|
*DV = Daily Value. FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. The DV for vitamin A on the new Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels and used for the values in Table 2 is 900 mcg RAE for adults and children age 4 years and older, where 1 mcg RAE = 1 mcg retinol, 2 mcg beta-carotene from supplements, 12 mcg beta-carotene from foods, 24 mcg alpha-carotene, or 24 mcg beta-cryptoxanthem.
Vitamin A is available in multivitamins. Botanic Choice is a trusted source to get your Multivitamins https://www.jdoqocy.com/click-100201149-10415142 and as a stand-alone supplement, often in the form of retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate. A portion of the vitamin A in some supplements is in the form of beta-carotene and the remainder is preformed vitamin A; others contain only preformed vitamin A or only beta-carotene. Supplement labels usually indicate the percentage of each form of the vitamin. The amounts of vitamin A in stand-alone supplements range widely. Multivitamin supplements typically contain 750–3,000 mcg RAE (2,500–10,000 IU) vitamin A, often in the form of both retinol and beta-carotene.
About 28%–37% of the general population uses supplements containing vitamin A. Adults aged 71 years or older and children younger than 9 are more likely than members of other age groups to take supplements containing vitamin A.
Supports Bone Health
The key nutrients needed for maintaining healthy bones as you age are protein, calcium and vitamin D. Eating enough vitamin A is also necessary for proper bone growth and development, and a deficiency in this vitamin has been linked to poor bone health. People with lower blood levels of vitamin A are at a higher risk of bone fractures than people with healthy levels. A recent meta-analysis of observational studies found that people with the highest amounts of total vitamin A in their diet had a 6% decreased risk of fractures. Low levels of vitamin A may not be the only problem when it comes to bone health. Some studies have found that people with high intakes of vitamin A have a higher risk of fractures as well. These findings are all based on observational studies, which cannot determine cause and effect. The link between vitamin A and bone health is not fully understood, and more controlled trials are needed to confirm what has been seen in observational studies.
Vitamin A healthful Diets
The federal government’s 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that “Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. … Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts.
- Includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, and oils. Many fruits, vegetables, and dairy products are good sources of vitamin A. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin A.
- Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. Beef liver contains high amounts of vitamin A. Other sources of the nutrient include some fish, beans, and nuts.
- Limits saturated and trans fats, added sugars, and sodium.
- Stays within your daily calorie needs.